Waste to Wealth- A Novel Approach for Food Waste Management

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Abstract- Food wastage is a huge problem arising in today’s world. It has become a serious issue in our society in the last years that affects “poor and rich countries” equally and according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) almost half of all produced food will never be consumed. By wasting food we also waste the “time and energy” that we have used to produce the food and as well our “natural resources” and the “limited available agricultural land” will be used up which could be handled in a much better and sustainable way. Additionally, waste has a strong financial impact and affects the environment including the overall greenhouse gas emission. To avoid all such situations we are going to implement IOT Based Smart Garbage and Waste Collection bins (SGWC).Our paper idea is based on creating a social awareness to reduce food wastage through measuring and displaying the amount of food wasted and recycling the wasted food using embedded systems. The Food waste disposal machine (FWDM) used here recycles the wasted food to make fertilizer at planting.

  1. INTRODUCTION

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept in which surrounding objects are connected through wired and wireless networks without user intervention. In the field of IoT, the objects communicate and exchange information to provide advanced intelligent services for users. Owing to the recent advances in mobile devices equipped with various sensors and communication modules, together with communication network technologies such as Wi-Fi and LTE, the IoT has gained considerable academic interests. The term Internet of Things was introduced by Kevin Ashton, who was the director of the Auto-ID Center of MIT in 1999. The initial technical realization of IoT was achieved by utilizing RFID technology for the identification and tracking of devices and storing device information. However, IoT utilizing RFID technology was limited to object tracking and extracting information of specific objects. The current IoT performs sensing, actuating, data gathering, storing, and processing by connecting physical or virtual devices to the Internet. For IoT applications performing these functions, a variety of researches on IoT services including environmental monitoring , object tracking , traffic management , health care, and smart home technology are being conducted. Owing to the characteristics and merits of IoT services, waste management has also become a significant issue in academia, industry, and government as major IoT application fields. An indiscriminate and illegal discharge of waste, an absence of waste disposal and management systems, and inefficient waste management policies have caused serious environmental problems and have incurred considerable costs for waste disposal. To handle these problems, various researches into waste management based on IoT technology have been conducted, from studies on RFID technology to studies on waste management platforms and systems. This paper proposes an IoT-based smart garbage system composed of a number of smart garbage bins (SGWC), routers, and servers. Each SGB, which plays a role in collecting food waste, is Sensor based.The Sensor senses the overflow indication of wasted food and the information is sent to display device , so that we can able to understand the amount of food wasted and we can reduce. The aim is to create the awareness on food wastage. The Wasted food is fertilized using Food Waste Disposal Machine. The FWDM used for the purpose of recycling food waste to make fertilizer at planting. In this paper, we used the power supply circuit and timer circuit and while we use mechanical part for several type of motor. The mechanical parts for several type of motor is motorcycle starter motor (Honda EX5) and power window motor. Some components also needed to complete this project are relay, limit switch, IR sensor (transmitter and receiver), ON/OFF switch, push button START and STOP. Use of various motor and conveyer are intended to make this machine works step by step in smoothly and safety to use. It aims to facilitate consumers in handling this machine. Selection of a garbage disposal unit should be based on quality and performance. Motors are relatively trouble-free, and unlikely to fail during a reasonable life-span. Metal parts in contact with waste and water (turntable, lugs, chamber, shredding ring) are very prone to corrosion, and last much longer if made of stainless steel or similar corrosion-resistant material rather than non-stainless steel, even if galvanized. The length of manufacturers’ warranties gives some indication of quality, but units should last much longer than their warranty period. The size of the chamber and power of the motor (in horsepower or watts) determine the amount of waste processed per unit time. Soundproofing to reduce the noise of operation adds cost. Induction and commutator motors each have advantages and disadvantages. Feed can be continuous or batched. Some manufacturers use standard mountings for all their models, making it very easy to replace a unit by any model of the same brand. Many standard disposal units allow a dishwasher to be connected, and some more expensive dishwashers are equipped with a small built-in garbage disposal unit, making it unnecessary to scrape plates before washing them. Disposers used in conjunction with septic systems will add to the load of the system, and may cause more frequent septic pumping, or overflow of sewage. For septic system users special disposers are available that feature an enzyme-adding system claimed to aid in degradation of food waste while in the septic system.

  1. Motivation and Background

In existing food waste management, local governments manage food waste by deploying food waste bins and employing multiple pickup businesses for food waste collection. However, the existing food waste management method is based on a flat rate, that is, a price structure that charges a single fixed fee, which causes environmental problems and increases waste discharge because there are no restrictions on heavy producers of food waste and no incentives for lighter producers. Because food waste producers do not have a direct burden of expense for generating waste, it is difficult for their waste amounts to be efficiently reduced. Moreover, the low reliability of statistics on food waste has caused difficulty in adjusting and managing discharge amounts because a local government hires multiple pickup businesses for waste collection, and each of them uses a different measuring method. To deal with these problems in existing food waste management, a volume-rate garbage disposal system has been introduced. Three types of volume-rate garbage disposal systems, that is, chips and stickers, standard plastic garbage bags, and RFID-based garbage collection systems, are currently being used. Table 1 describes the pros and cons of these three types of volume-rate garbage disposal systems. The most significant difference among them is that an accurate discharge weight can be obtained for an RFID-based garbage collection system when collecting food waste, which is difficult to measure accurately for chips and stickers and standard plastic garbage bags. For example, for standard plastic garbage bags, the weight of each bag may differ according to the resident’s discharge habits and contents. In achip and sticker method, although a collection box is used, thereby decreasing the allowable tolerance, accurate weight data also cannot be provided. Measuring accurate weight data is important, because of providing disposal convenience, after collecting and imposing the right duty for discharging how much food garbage they throw away.

In an RFID-based garbage collection system, an RFID collection bin includes a communication module for communicating with a central server, an RFID tag module for reading the data from an RFID card, automatic garbage entrance, and a scale function to measure the weight of the food waste. However, the collection bin communicates only with a server and lacks machine-to-machine communication with the other collection bins, which may cause a server overload. Furthermore, owing to the delay incurred from the complex discharge process of an RFID-based garbage collection system, users have a lengthy wait; in addition, an RFID-based garbage collection system lacks mobility because of a fixed power supply, causing further user inconvenience. To solve these problems in existing RFID-based garbage collection systems, an IoT-based SGS is proposed. The proposed SGS fits into the category of IoT applied to external and public environments and was therefore designed to include the necessary components for such applications. Reliability, Mobility, Service continuity, User Convenience, Energy Efficiency.

  1. Block Diagram

A.ArchitectureOverview Considering the need of modern technology the smart garbage bin can expensive but considering the amount of dustbin needed in India, expensive garbage bin would not be a prior experiment that is why we have decide to use based sensors to reduce its cost and also make it efficient in applications

B.Microcontroller MSP430 The MSP 430 microcontroller (MSP430G2452IN20)-8 KB Flash, 256B RAM, 16 GPIO, 1X16-bit timer, WDT,BOR,1xUSI(12C/SPI),8ch 10-bit Adc, 8ch Comparator, capacitive Touch I/O module.

C.IR Sensor (TSOP 1738): This IR Sensor gives indicates the level of garbage filled in dustbin and IR Sensor are planted at three different levels on the surface of dustbin to show us the actual level of garbage present in it.

D.Weight Sensor: The weight sensor is used for detection of amount of garbage in dustbin. It works on the principle of piezo-resistivity. It is RoHS complaint. E.Wi-Fi Module: 802.11b/g/n protocol, Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP, Integrated TCP/IP protocol stack. Wi-Fi Module helps us to send the details of the dustbin at the receiver side.

  1. Conclusion

This project work is the implementation of smart IOT based garbage management system using IR sensor, microcontroller and Wi-Fi module. This system assures the cleaning of dustbins soon when the garbage level reaches its maximum. If the dustbin is not cleaned in specific time, then the record is sent to the higher authority who can take appropriate action against the concerned contractor. This reduces the total number of trips of garbage collection vehicle and hence reduces the overall expenditure associated with the garbage collection. It ultimately helps to keep cleanliness in the society. Therefore, the smart garbage management system makes the garbage collection more efficient. Such systems are vulnerable to plundering of components in the system in different ways which needs to be worked on. The display system used to create the awareness about the food waste to the people. The recycling process is used to convert the wasted food to make fertilizer at planting.

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