The Study on Estimate of College Information Management System
This article uses the estimate methods of famous international awards in developed countries for reference to study the estimate of college information management system in the viewpoint of practical application. To study the estimate of college information management system is significant not only for theory of estimate but also for practical worth. Carrying out the estimate on the designing developing applying and updating at the right time is a meaningful method for improving the quality of college information management system. Assessing the domain application of college information manage system will promote the progress of college information management system technology and exchange of college information management system application experience.
The Information System literature strongly suggests that planning for distributed information systems should be centralized. The planning activity should be a top down process developed from the business planning and information system planning activities. A model of information system architecture should be developed which would serve as the basis for the management and control of information systems resources throughout the organization. Information system architecture is an enterprise-wide design or plan of the collective information systems and technologies used by the firm, it serves two purposes. It is the basis of planning for the future development of the information systems of the college management and it serves to document the current state of the information systems. In actuality, an organization should maintain a set of models of information system architectures. One model should document the current state of the firm’s information systems. One model should be target architecture for the organization. Models which are intermediary between those two models should exist which serve to define the planned progress of the organization toward the target architecture. A decision support system which could serve as the basis for the development and evaluation of such models is needed. A model base suitable for this environment must first be developed. In order to evaluate modeling frameworks which might serve as a model base for such a system? basis for evaluation needs to be established. The purpose of this paper is to present the criteria for models which have been set forth in the literature and develop from them quantifiable measures which can be used as a basis for the evaluation of modeling frameworks to be used as a model base for a DSS.
- Multiple Subjects of College Information Management System Estimate
In each of the categories there are very specific mechanisms which must exist in a model of information system architecture. Measuring scales are developed in order to record whether or not the model meets the criteria in each category. For some conditions a natural scale exists and is used as a measurement. In all other areas a binary scale is used. In the case of the binary scale, a zero indicates that the model does not meet that condition, and a one indicates that the condition is met.
2.1 Vertical Completeness
In the area of vertical completeness there are basically two conditions to be met: 1. High level inputs (i.e., data sets, processes, rules, and predicates) from the information architecture and business planning activities should be carried through to the low-level design and evaluation activities. 2. Sufficient detail should be provided at the design level to support evaluation of the model. As concerns the first of these, the Brancheau and Wetherbe model  of the planning process for the development of a target architecture shows the integration of business planning and information systems planning prior to information system architecture planning. They show the inputs to the information system architecture planning process to be the information architecture, the application architecture, and information systems policies, objectives and strategies. The top level of any planning model must provide a means to incorporate these inputs into the planning process. Wardle found that a top-down planning process was more effective in accomplishing this goal than a bottom-up approach. The high-level inputs from the information and application architectures consist of data sets and the processes which act on those data sets. Policies are rules and can be stated as logic statements. Objectives and strategies can be stated in the form of predicates. Therefore, a model must be able to incorporate (1) data sets, (2) processes, (3) rules and (4) predicates.
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2.2 Project Team of Information System
Project team of information system develop, implement and control the system, of which the project manager is the head, and system analysts, programmers, persons participating in the system development and implementation are the members. Therefore, what the project team are mainly concerned about are the technology of the information system and whether the system functions according to the schedule, budget and goals set. The estimate indexes mainly include: 1) Index for evaluating system construction: It mainly evaluates the implementation and management of the information system, such as the satisfaction degree of users, development efficiency of the system, the utilization rate of resources, normalization degree of system construction and whether the overall system is advanced, etc; 2) Index for evaluating system performance: It mainly evaluates the reliability, efficiency, adaptability, maintainability, transportability, expandability, and safety and confidentiality of the system.
2.3 College ManagementStaffs
College management staffs are usually the initiator and advocator of information systems, who initiate, plan, organize, coordinate and support the implementation of information systems, and whose support is the key to the successful implementation of information systems. College management staffs are concerned about the overall interest and long-term development of the college. They support the implementation of the information system to realize the strategic goals and sharpen the competitive edge of the college, such as improving the college image and attracting more clients. Therefore, College management staffs, when evaluating the system, would take the tangible and intangible interests the information system brings into consideration, which mainly include: 1) Operation interest: Saving cost, shortening time of turnover, enhancing productivity, improving service quality, etc. 2) Management interest: Optimizing resource management, etc. 3) Strategic interest: Supporting innovative expansion of business and e-commerce, etc.; therefore, system progress, whether the system supports cooperation with external parties, and global expansion of business and e-commerce, etc are the indexes for estimate. 4) Fundamental interest of IT: Improving the flexibility of business, saving IT cost, enhancing basic capacity of IT, etc. 5) Organization interest: supporting the reformation of the organization, promoting training and improving skills of staff, and setting up common goals, etc. 2.4 External Entities
The implementation of college information system will affect the partnership with clients and suppliers, etc. Therefore, external entities like clients and suppliers would also evaluate the implementation of the information system. Besides, the external entities also include the estimate agency and consulting agency, etc.  Things that external entities like clients and suppliers concern about fall into 4 categories: time, quality, performance, service and cost. Therefore, they are mainly concerned about how the information system can bring them value and satisfaction from the four aspects mentioned above. The estimate indexes include: 1) Whether the implementation of the system shortens the response time, 2) Whether the implementation of the system improves product and service quality, 3) Whether the implementation of the system brings larger value, 4) Whether the implementation of the system reduces product or service cost.
- Multiple Stages of College Information Management System Estimate
To implement information systems is not simply to install software or to adopt a new technology, but to carry out a commercial project. According to Markus and Tanis, the implementation of information system starts since the planning stage of the system. After the planning is finished, the project team is formed, and a series of concrete projects are carried out.  When the system is finalized and begins to operate, it will go through the stabilizing and optimization stage. After that, system estimate will be implemented. Therefore, information system implementation is divided into three stages as planning, project and promotion, which happen to agree to the division of estimate stages as pre-event, in-event, post-event, proposed by Chinese scholars Wei xiang Xu et al.
Planning stage (pre-event estimate)–to establish guiding principles of system implementation and procedures for related decision making. The main activities include: selection of the information system, establishment of directing committee, deciding of project implementation scope and method, appointment of project team manager and resource distribution. At the planning stage, since the project has not been implemented, the estimate of information system can be seen as predictive validation. Therefore, the major content for estimate is the degree to which system implementation is prepared. Preparations must be made for management and awareness as well as technology and fund. Pre-event estimate of information system is often combined with the project feasibility study. The main contents for estimate include four aspects: management feasibility, economy feasibility, technology feasibility and operation feasibility.
3.2 Project Stage
Project stage (in-event estimate) -configuration of the information system and installation of it in the whole college, i.e. the process from configuration to installation of the system. The main activities include: software configuring, system integrating, testing, data transforming, training and installing. During project stage, system estimate is to ensure the progress and quality of system implementation and to direct it towards the goal set up. The expenditure being mainly concentrated at project stage and little profit earned the proper control of progress and cost is a premise for optimizing decision and performance in follow-up project stage. Hence the estimate of project stage mainly includes progress, quality and cost of the system. The estimate indexes mainly include: 1) Estimate index for system construction. System implementation progress, degree of user’s satisfaction, system development efficiency, resource utilization rate, degree of system construction normalization, degree of system integral advancement, etc. 2) Estimate index for system performance. Reliability, efficiency, adaptability, translatability, maintainability, expandability, safety and confidentiality of the system, etc. 3) Estimate index for system implementation cost: the project cost as compared with the budget.
Optimization stage (post-event)-from installation of system to normal operation until stable operation. At this stage, colleges begin to obtain commercial benefits from information system and plan to implement new technologies. The activities mainly include: system repair, upgrading IT infrastructure, modification of business practice and workflow, system function expansion and innovation, etc. At optimization stage, old system is replaced by new ones or optimized, and new system begins to function smoothly. Users are more familiar with the operation of new system. Administrators make decisions with the data from the system. Additional innovations are carried out on workflow and software configuration. Besides, colleges need to bear new extra cost, including labor cost of temporary work, consultation fee, additional IT resource investment, etc. Therefore, the focus of information system estimate is the fluctuations of Key Performance Index (KPI) and commercial benefits which colleges obtain via information system. The main estimate indexes include: time spent for KPI in achieving normal or expected level; commercial benefits obtained, such as lowering cost of operation, benefits gained by saving stock safekeeping fee; possibility of adopting new version, new technology and new innovation after the stable operation of the system.
- Multiple Levels of College Information Management System Estimate
The benefit brought to colleges by information systems is multi-dimensional and will spread to different levels of colleges or of human resources. The different levels of human resources increase in value after the government put more investment in human resources.  Moreover, each level has its own unique characteristic in applying the system and selecting appropriate estimate indexes. The effect that information system brings to colleges is mainly reflected on four levels, namely, operation level, knowledge level, management level and strategy level.
4.1 Operation Level
The information system is mainly used to deal with routine business, to enhance work efficiency and benefits, such as stock management, sales amount calculating, etc. The implementation of information systems at operation level results in the improvement of production and working efficiency and the lowering of cost. Hence, one important function of system estimate is supporting daily, regular operation and control of colleges. The estimate indexes include: cost reduction, specifically that of labor cost, stock cost and management; productivity enhancement; shortening of turnover cycle, specifically that of order service for clients or suppliers and that of cash; improvement of service, specifically easy access to data and quick response to customer requirements.
4.2 Knowledge Level
Information system serves people who work with data, helping colleges detect, organize and integrate new information and knowledge, coordinating information transfer within colleges or between colleges and the outside to ensure smooth information flow. The effect of information system at knowledge level is reflected in helping relative staff with knowledge and data, managing and refining useful information and knowledge. Hence the focus of system estimate is whether the system supports staff working with knowledge. The main estimate indexes include: information quality of system, such as accuracy, timeliness, integrality, relativity, intelligibility, format, etc; improvement of knowledge staffs’ work quality, such as working efficiency, degree of automation, quick learning capability; amelioration of knowledge staffs’ working conditions, such as uniform working platform, integrated database and effective communications among staffs.
Information system is mainly used to assist information manager in planning and controlling the operation of colleges; to obtain information of the college and the outside in order to solve semi-structured problems; and to make decisions. System estimate here stresses the optimizing of college decisions to guarantee its smooth operation. The effect of information system implementation is reflected in the optimizing of college decisions to guarantee its smooth operation. Hence the focus of system estimate is the degree to which system supports decisions.  Estimate indexes include: optimization of decision-making, specifically optimization of decisions at operation level, strategic decisions and decisions for customer service etc.; performance control improvement such as finance performance control and production performance control; resource management optimizing, specifically stock management optimizing, production management optimizing and staff management optimizing.
- Conclusion The above analysis of information systems estimate indicates that it is a complex social process. Different subjects at different stages require different estimate principles and estimate indexes. And system effect is also reflected at four different levels or at different levels of human resources. A comprehensive consideration of these three aspects is needed to establish a complete information system estimate index system and estimate methods. Ignorance of any one of them would lead to incompleteness of estimate and failure to reflect the benefits and improvements brought to colleges by the sy