Garbage Management System Project

Internet Of Things Based Garbage Monitoring System

n this project the garbage bins are set in the urban areas of a city and a closed circuit camera is set on the bin location. The camera captures the images for garbage bins continuously and the Radio frequency Identification(RFID), GPS and GIS send these images for work station. The RFID reader and the camera are mounted to the truck which will load the garbage. When the truck come closer to the bins, the RFID starts communicating with the RFID tag and send all information. This information process uses controlling Hut. This Hut is S.M.S Technology. The GPS and GPRS mapping servers are used to analyse data of various locations. The control station compile all the information and store in the system database. In this project ultrasonic sensors are used to detect the garbage level and are placed on the bins. These sensors compare the depth of the level of garbage with the bin depth. We can upgrade this system with placing some chemical sensors which are designed to detect the chemical reactivity nature of the wastes and by this can differentiate between biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes. The IoT system mainly uses a arduino family microcontroller with a L.C.D or L.E.D screen and a Wi-Fi modem. Wi-Fi modem is used for sending data. A buzzer is used to alert the truck for showing the percentage of garbage level depth. This total system monitors the garbage bins and informs about the level of garbage, collected in the garbage bins via a web page. The L.C.D screen shows the status of garbage level. The web page views a graphical view in order to show the amounts of garbage collected and the rest which are not yet. In this way we can develop a system. The other methods are also available. But arduino ATmega2560 is less expensive, thus cost effective.

Garbage Management System Project

Microcontroller: Microcontroller receives information from sensors and processes on it. Here we are using Arduino ATmega2560. It operates on maximum +5 Volt. Input voltage range is (6-20) V. It has a number of facilities for communicating with a computer, another arduino or other microcontrollers. This microcontroller board provides four hardware UARTs for TTL(5V) serial communication. An ATmega8U2 on the board channels one of these over USB and provides a virtual com port to software on the computer. The regulated power supply 5V is used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. This can come either from VIN (the input voltage to the arduino board when it’s using an external power source) via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply [2].

Wi-Fi Modem: The arduino uno Wi-Fi module can be used as Wi-Fi modem. The Wi-Fi module is based on ATmega328P(datasheet) with an ESP8266 Wi-Fi module integrated. It has 14 digital I/O pins, 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header and a Reset button. Code Shoppy The ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is a self contained SoC with integrated TCP/IP protocol that can give access to the Wi-Fi network [3]

Ultrasonic Sensors: An ultrasonic sensor transmits ultrasonic waves into the air and detects reflected waves from an object. It has two openings. One transmits ultrasonic waves and another receives them. The speed of sound is about 340 metres per second in air. The ultrasonic sensor uses this information along with the time difference between sending and receiving the sound pulse to determine the distance to an object [2]

Chemical Sensors: A chemical sensor is a device that transforms chemical information, ranging from the concentration of a specificsample component to totalcomposition analysis, into an analytically useful signal. In this project the chemical information originates from chemical reactions rather reactivity ofwastes with nitrogen and itsoxides belonging into soil and other chemical compounds which detect the biodegradability of a waste. Chemical sensors contain two basic functional transducer part. This sensorunits: a receptor part and a has a separator part which separates the biodegradableand non-biodegradable wastes.

GSM Module: GSM Module is used to send SMS to the work station or garbage depot if the garbage exceeds set threshold level. GSM is Global System for Mobile Communication. GSM is connected to ATmega2560 via MAX232 serial adder circuit as shown in Fig. 8. GSM is controlled through ATmega commands.

This project helps us to save time. It is more efficient over manual process. It is little bit expensive but it saves continuous labour costs and human efforts. We could have been using Raspberry Pi instead of arduino system, but it is more costly than arduino ATmega 2560.